News that North Carolina’s Jesse Helms will retire from the Senate when his term is up in 2003 received polite coverage in mainstream media. USA Today (8/22/01) described Helms’ views as “unabashed and outspoken conservatism.” To the Washington Post (8/22/01), Helms is one of the Senate’s “most ardent champions of conservative causes…a man of bold colors and few pastels.” Curiously using the past tense, the Los Angeles Times observed, “he personified the unvarnished, uncompromising, attack-dog brand of conservatism.” (8/22/01)
Most of the coverage alluded to Helms’ unrepentant racism and homophobia–though few called it that. Some outlets presented his bigotry as merely accusations from political foes: “His opponents have accused him of using race to win elections” (CBS Evening News, 8/21/01). Overall, most outlets painted Helms as a conservative whose career has merely been punctuated by controversial episodes, not as a demagogue whose career has been defined by the politics of hate and reaction.
One exception was Washington Post columnist David Broder, whose August 29 column, headlined “Jesse Helms, White Racist,” offered a glimpse into the public record that many other reporters were side-stepping.
Broder offered a few examples of Helms’ bigotry. There are many.
As an aide to the 1950 Senate campaign of North Carolina Republican candidate Willis Smith, Helms reportedly helped create attack ads against Smith’s opponent, including one which read: “White people, wake up before it is too late. Do you want Negroes working beside you, your wife and your daughters, in your mills and factories? Frank Graham favors mingling of the races.” Another ad featured photographs Helms himself had doctored to illustrate the allegation that Graham’s wife had danced with a black man (News and Observer, 8/26/01; New Republic, 6/19/95; Observer, 5/5/96; Hard Right: The Rise of Jesse Helms, by Ernest B. Furgurson, Norton, 1986).
Ancient history? No. Helms remains unapologetic to this day. Forty years after the Smith campaign, Helms would win election against black opponent Harvey Gantt with another ad playing to racist white fear–the so-called “white hands” ad, in which a white man’s hands crumple a rejected job application while a voiceover intones, “You needed that job…but they had to give it to a minority.”
In columns, commentaries and pronouncements from the Senate floor, Helms sowed hatred and called names: The University of North Carolina was “the University of Negroes and Communists” (Capital Times, 11/22/94). Black civil rights activists were “Communists and sex perverts” (Copley News Service, 8/23/01).
Of civil rights protests Helms wrote (WRAL-TV commentary, 1963), “The Negro cannot count forever on the kind of restraint that’s thus far left him free to clog the streets, disrupt traffic, and interfere with other men’s rights.” He also wrote (New York Times, 2/8/81), “Crime rates and irresponsibility among Negroes are a fact of life which must be faced.”
Over the years Helms has declared homosexuality “degenerate,” and homosexuals “weak, morally sick wretches” (Newsweek, 12/5/94). In a tirade highlighting his routine opposition to AIDS research funding, Helms lashed out at the Kennedy-Hatch AIDS bill in 1988 (States News Service, 5/17/88): “There is not one single case of AIDS in this country that cannot be traced in origin to sodomy.”
Helms remonstrated ten female members of the House of Representatives to “act like ladies” when they interrupted a Senate Foreign Relations Committee hearing to demand support of a U.N. treaty against gender discrimination, and subsequently had them removed from the hearing by Capitol police. (St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 10/28/99)
And the man ABC News now describes as a “conservative icon” (8/22/01) in 1993 sang “Dixie” in an elevator to Carol Moseley-Braun, the first African-American woman elected to the Senate, bragging: “I’m going to make her cry. I’m going to sing ‘Dixie’ until she cries.” (Chicago Sun-Times, 8/5/93)
More recently, when a caller to CNN‘s Larry King Live show praised guest Jesse Helms for “everything you’ve done to help keep down the niggers,” Helms’ response was to salute the camera and say, “Well, thank you, I think.” (Wilmington Star-News, 9/16/95)
Finally, Helms’ strong if sometimes shadowy support for violent, anti-democratic forces abroad, from South Africa to El Salvador, might have given media outlets further pause in describing him as a mere conservative; few probed his ties to groups that would more accurately be described as fascist. One exception was an editorial in the Boston Globe (8/23/01):
With 17 months remaining in his Senate term, there will be many more “send-offs” dedicated to Jesse Helms. It remains to be seen whether he will continue to get kid glove treatment from the press, or if journalists will choose to tell the unvarnished truth about Helms’ career.